Monday, August 24, 2020

The Micro and Macro Factors That Would Affect Airasia’s Performance

Guidelines ON â€Å"HOW TO REFERENCE† Bibliography: Citations must be reliable in creator name(s) (spelling and name request) and distribution date between the content and the catalog toward the end. Any reference in the content must be coordinated by a full passage at long last list of sources. Sections in the book reference must be coordinated by passages in the content; if nor they ought to be erased. References must incorporate all data important to empower the peruser to find the referenced distribution. The models in the arrangement area underneath mirror the data considered satisfactory for each sort of publication.Citations ought to be in sequential order request by the main creator's last name (if there is a name); by the principal expression of the distribution or composing association if there is no creator name. References in text: ‘Author's last name (20**) discovered that†¦ ‘ ‘Recent contemplates (Last name 20**; last name, last name, and l ast name 20**; last name 20**)†¦ Note the accompanying: a semi-colon isolates sections, there is no comma before the date, there is a comma before the ‘and' in different creator postings. References in references: Books: Ward, John W. (1987). Keeping the Family Business Healthy. San Francisco, Calif. Jossey Bass. Note the accompanying: Author names and distribution date are designed like diary sections. Books are emphasized and followed by a period. Distribution data incorporates the distributer's area with city and state followed by a colon and afterward the distributer's complete name. Diary Articles: Hoy, Frank, and Trudy G. Verser (1994). ‘Emerging Business, Emerging Field: Entrepreneurship and the Family Firm,' Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 19 (1), 9-23. Note the accompanying: Initials or first names follow the main creator's name, yet go before the last name for resulting authors.There is a comma before the ‘and' between creator names, regardless of whether there are just 2 creators/There is a period after the date. Article titles utilize starting tops (barring conjunctions and relational words) and are hindered by twofold quotes. There is a comma between article title and diary title; the comma is inside the statements. Diary titles are stressed. The section number isn't emphasized. Neither ‘Vol. ‘ or No. ‘ are utilized. In this way, Vol. 19, No. 1 = 19 (1). There is no ‘pp. ‘ before the page numbers. Articles in altered distributions: Kaslow, Florence W. also, S. Kaslow (1992). ‘The Family that Works Together: Special Problems of Family Businesses,' in Work, Families, and Organizations. Ed. S. Zedeck. San Francisco, Calif. : Jossey Bass, 312-361. Note the accompanying: Author names, distribution dates and article title are arranged like diary articles. Use ‘In' before book title; title is stressed. Go before editorial manager's name with ‘Ed. ‘ (which implies ‘ed ited by'; in this way ‘Eds. ‘ is improper). Put initials before last names. Put a period between the editors' names and the distributer information.Include and organization distributer data like a book. Incorporate the page numbers (no ‘pp. ‘) n the book where the article is found. Papers introduced at gatherings or different gatherings: Pleck, John (1979). ‘Work-Family Conflict: A National Assessment,' paper introduced at the yearly gathering of the Society for the Study of Social Problems, Boston, Mass. , May. Note the accompanying: Author names, distribution dates and article title are designed like diary articles. Incorporate sort of meeting, supporting association, area, and date of meeting.If there are printed procedures for the gathering, refer to the section as an article in an altered distribution. Propositions and Dissertations: Simic, James (1993). ‘A Comparison of SMEs in Greenland and the Fiji Islands,' Ph. D. exposition, University o f Fjord, 23-26. Note the accompanying: Author names, distribution dates and article title are arranged like diary articles. Sort of work (Master's theory or Ph. D. thesis) ought to be shown, just as scholarly establishment. Site documentation: West Virginia Bureau of Business and Economic Research (2001). ‘Economic Outlook Conference. ‘

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Labor Laws and Unions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Work Laws and Unions - Essay Example The association permitted various gatherings to join with the goal that it could battle for their privileges. Be that as it may, the state law later began administering the quantity of representatives who were permitted into this association. This prompted certain definition or sorting of organizations that made some of them unfit to be individuals from the association. Lamentably, Gompers was just keen on the gifted workers, and he considered many dark individuals untalented (Lorwin, 1972). In this manner, the association is commanded with the obligation of arranging exacting test, so it couldn't put together its participation with respect to suspicions. Also, the circumstance was encouraged to check the issue of a part not fitting the provisions of the state enactment (Roberts, 1960). To avoid some other issues, enrollment was open for all specialists notwithstanding of their race or shading. This decreased any expected government approach that may have influenced the association b ecause of the predisposition that fuelled prejudice in country’s mechanical area (Aldrich, 2010). A worker's organization is a development framed by laborers with normal interests of accomplishing shared objectives that incorporate better working conditions (Marot, 2001). It is generally the obligation of the association authority to guarantee that they satisfactorily deal for the benefit of the workers, who are individuals from the association (Marot, 2001). Besides, the association heads are ordered with an on the whole expecting work contracts with the businesses for sake to representatives. Furthermore, arrangement inundates compensation, protest technique, work jobs, recruiting rules, advancement, and terminating of laborers, strategies, advantages, and work environment wellbeing. The dealings and resulting understandings by the pioneers of the association are ever official on the record and rank individuals just as in cases that include non-part laborers. It is important that a worker's organization might be comprised of individual laborers, glue laborers, experts,

Saturday, July 25, 2020

Why Fentanyl Pain Patches Can Be Deadly

Why Fentanyl Pain Patches Can Be Deadly Addiction Drug Use Opioids Print Fentanyl Pain Patch Abuse Can Be Deadly By Buddy T facebook twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial policy Buddy T Updated on October 15, 2019 Alcibiades/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain More in Addiction Drug Use Opioids Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Ecstasy/MDMA Hallucinogens Prescription Medications Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery The fentanyl patch is prescribed to give a slow release of a powerful opioid painkiller for people who are in pain. But it has the potential to be abused, turning it into a way of delivering a quick and dangerous high. Fentanyl is an opioid that is 100 times more potent than morphine. Fentanyl patch abuse can result in an overdose that can be fatal. Patients who are prescribed the patch must be educated to prevent misuse. How Fentanyl Patches Are Abused Because the patch is a sustained-release form of the drug, if one withdraws the 72 hours worth of drug and uses it in a form that it wasnt designed to be used for, then it can rapidly result in death, said Bruce Goldberger, Ph.D., of the University of Florida College of Medicine in a press release. Fentanyl patch abusers often extract the drug from the patches and then inject it, ingest it, or smoke it. Even used patches discarded in the trash are sought after by abusers as some drug remains in the patch. Other abusers might simply apply multiple patches at the same time. Those who abuse fentanyl are seeking a state of euphoria and relaxation common to opioid drugs. These drugs increase dopamine in the brains reward areas. Like heroin, fentanyl can also produce the effects of drowsiness, nausea, confusion, constipation, and lead to tolerance and addiction. Abusers might get the patches through prescription, by stealing them, or by buying them on the street. In some cases, they get them by scrounging through the trash of people who had a prescription and didnt dispose of them appropriately. Dangers of Fentanyl Overdose Taking a large dose of fentanyl can depress and stop breathing. You may become unconscious, go into a coma, and die. This happens because opioid receptors in the brain also control breathing. Because fentanyl is more potent than many other opioids, it is easier to misjudge how much of the drug is being taken. This is amplified if extracting it from patches and using other delivery methods. Fentanyl overdose has an antidote, naloxone, which restores normal respiration. However, it has to be used immediately and it can take higher doses of naloxone to reverse a fentanyl overdose compared to other opioids. EMTs and emergency room personnel must learn to recognize these situations. An example of the dangers was that 115 deaths in Florida were attributed to fentanyl patch abuse in 2004. Overdoses from fentanyl have continued to rise, but most deaths are due to injecting the powdered form, which is usually manufactured in clandestine laboratories rather than being diverted from legal pharmaceutical sources. The Problem Is Addiction Based on our study were recommending that physicians better educate their patients on the use of the patch, and, as a result, we might see lower numbers in fentanyl-related deaths, Goldberger said. While fentanyl patch abuse continues to be a problem, the use of illegally-manufactured powdered fentanyl is fueling even more overdoses.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Should Marijuana Be Legalized Essay - 1953 Words

Marijuana Medicine or a High What has been in the news for a couple of years now is the subject of marijuana, should it be legalized in your state or not? This seems to be an ongoing topic of conversation on the news and in social settings. As a parent this subject is one that should be taken serious for the future of our children and society in general. Taking a hard look at both sides of this debate can help parents weigh both ends of the spectrum. Marijuana should be legalized for medicinal purposes only to help patients who are suffering from cancer and other illnesses. Knowing how marijuana affects your thoughts and your decision making can hopefully give our youth a better understanding of this drug. The problem that will be investigated is should this drug be legalized for everyday use like cigarettes are or should it be legalized for medicinal purposes only. What this papers hopes to accomplish is informative information on the use of marijuana for everyday use or just to help someone cope with an illness. Also what effect can long term use of marijuana have on the individual and on our country as a whole? The history of marijuana is an interesting one to say the least. Marijuana which is also called hemp was originally introduced by the government in the seventeenth century. Hemp was to be used for the production of rope, sails, and clothing. (Marijuana is the mixture of dried, shredded flowers and leaves that comes from the hemp plant) (PBSShow MoreRelatedShould Marijuana Be Legalized?849 Words   |  4 Pageswhether marijuana should be legalized. Around 23 states have legalized marijuana for medical and recreational use. In the state of Illinois, medicinal use of marijuana has been passed on April 17, 2013. Since January 2014, patients are able to obtain marijuana with a doctor s recommendation. The new debate is whether marijuana should be legalized for the general public as a recreational drug. Although some believe that marijuana is harmless, and that it has benefici al medicinal uses, marijuana shouldRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1715 Words   |  7 PagesMarijuana in Society Cannabis, formally known as marijuana is a drug obtained from the tops, stems and leaves of the hemp plant cannabis. The drug is one of the most commonly used drugs in the world. Only substances like caffeine, nicotine and alcohol are used more (â€Å"Marijuana† 1). In the U. S. where some use it to feel â€Å"high† or get an escape from reality. The drug is referred to in many ways; weed, grass, pot, and or reefer are some common names used to describe the drug (â€Å"Marijuana† 1). Like mostRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1489 Words   |  6 Pagescannabis plant or marijuana is intended for use of a psychoactive drug or medicine. It is used for recreational or medical uses. In some religions, marijuana is predominantly used for spiritual purposes. Cannabis is indigenous to central and south Asia. Cannabis has been scientifically proven that you can not die from smoking marijuana. Marijuana should be legalized to help people with medical benefits, econo mic benefits, and criminal benefits. In eight states, marijuana was legalized for recreationalRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1245 Words   |  5 PagesMarijuana is a highly debatable topic that is rapidly gaining attention in society today.   Legalizing marijuana can benefit the economy of this nation through the creation of jobs, increased tax revenue, and a decrease in taxpayer money spent on law enforcement.   Ã‚  Many people would outlaw alcohol, cigarettes, fast food, gambling, and tanning beds because of the harmful effects they have on members of a society, but this is the United States of America; the land of the free and we should give peopleRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1010 Words   |  5 PagesThe legalization of marijuana became a heated political subject in the last few years. Twenty-one states in America have legalized medical marijuana. Colorado and Washington are the only states where marijuana can be purchased recreationally. Marijuana is the high THC level part of the cannabis plant, which gives users the â€Å"high† feeling. There is ample evidence that supports the argument that marijuana is beneficial. The government should legalize marijuana recreationally for three main reasonsRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1350 Words   |  6 Pagespolitics in the past decade would have to be the legalization of marijuana. The sale and production of marijuana have been legalized for medicinal uses in over twenty states and has been legalized for recreational uses in seven states. Despite the ongoing support for marijuana, it has yet to be fully legalized in the federal level due to cultural bias against â€Å"pot† smoking and the focus over its negative effects. However, legalizing marijuana has been proven to decrease the rate of incrimination in AmericaRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1231 Words   |  5 Pagesshows the positive benefits of marijuana, it remains illegal under federal law. In recent years, numerous states have defied federal law and legalized marijuana for both recreational and medicinal use. Arizona has legalized marijuana for medical use, but it still remains illegal to use recreationally. This is absurd, as the evidence gathered over the last few decades strongly supports the notion that it is safer than alcohol, a widely available substance. Marijuana being listed as a Schedule I drugRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized? Essay1457 Words   |  6 PagesSHOULD MARIJUANA BE LEGALIZED? Marijuana is a drug that has sparked much controversy over the past decade as to whether or not it should be legalized. People once thought of marijuana as a bad, mind-altering drug which changes a person’s personality which can lead to crime and violence through selling and buying it. In the past, the majority of citizens believed that marijuana is a harmful drug that should be kept off the market and out of the hands of the public. However, a recent study conductedRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1596 Words   |  7 Pages But what needs to be known before a user can safely and completely make the decision if trying Marijuana is a good idea? Many do not want the drug to be legalized because they claim that Cannabis is a â€Å"gateway drug†, meaning it will cause people to try harder drugs once their body builds up a resistance to Marijuana, because a stronger drug will be needed to reach a high state. This argument is often falsely related to the medical si de of the debate over legalization. It is claimed that this wouldRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?985 Words   |  4 PagesLegalize Marijuana Despite what people believe about marijuana, it hasn’t once proved to be the cause of any real issue. It makes you wonder what the reason as to why there is a war on drugs. Why is marijuana the main concern? Since the time that alcohol and tobacco became legal, people wonder why marijuana isn’t legal yet. The fact that marijuana is illegal is mainly caused by the amount of money, jobs, and pride invested in the drug war. Once the government starts anything, they stick to it. At

Friday, May 8, 2020

Political Awareness Essay - 1418 Words

Political Action Awareness Nurse leaders are aware that today’s health care system has many issues complicating the goal of quality patient care and outcomes for all. Nurse leaders must stay informed and become involved as an advocate influencing changes in policy, laws, and/or regulations that govern the health care system they practice in. At times the advocacy requires a nurse leader to become more involved beyond their immediate level of practice and into the world of politics and policy. The health care practice arena is impacted by decisions made by our legislative bodies at the federal and state levels. The changes in health care delivery methods, together with the political process and politicians increased involvement in†¦show more content†¦Without an avenue to remain current in the knowledge about changes in policy and laws a facility and the nurse leaders could be unable to make the best decisions in regard to nursing practice within the facility in light of changes being made in health care and the future of nursing practice. Importance of Maintaining Awareness The timing is right for every nurse and especially nurse leaders to become involved in health care delivery and reform. The issues at hand for health care offer the opportunity for nurse leaders to form alliances with influential people and groups through the sharing of personal experiences with legislative bodies or joining politically active professional organization committees working to make changes occur. Nurses are ethically responsible and accountable to abide by the Standards of Clinical Nursing and the Code of Ethics for Nurses. Within the Code of Ethics are standards that specifically address shaping the practice of nursing and a nurses responsibility not only to the profession of nursing and its practice in the promotion of the best patient care and outcomes, but addresses standards of clinicalShow MoreRelatedThe Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics1412 Words   |  6 PagesThe written word became not only the best way of recording the linear timeline of what happened when, but also the more abstract social and cultural aspects of everyday people living their everyday lives. History became the ideologies, fears, and political aggravations recorded in the books of the people, regardless of the genre. And as times changed, the predominant forms of writing changed to match them. Today, one specific form of writing that has become increasingly popular is argumentative orRead MoreCelebrity Activism732 Words   |  3 PagesAnthony guidetti English I 7 December 2012 Activism Awareness Do you think celebrity activism is a positive or negative thing? That’s the question. To me, I think celebrity activism has a very positive effect on society and should become more popular. More celebrities should become activists because activists have a long successful history, celebrity activism helps draw attention to all different kinds of issues activism gives celebrities an opportunity to use their wealth for the goodRead MoreEmotional Intelligence : Developing And Maintaining Healthy Relationships773 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"your ability to recognize and understand emotions in yourself and others, and your ability to use this awareness to manage your behavior and relationships† (p. 17). 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The more conscious we are in any situation, the more possibilities we tend to notice, the more options we have, the more powerful we are , even the longerRead MoreConfessions Of An Economic Hitman Essay2564 Words   |  11 PagesPacker Christ-Arnaud Lacombe Marion Mayer Ulrik Karlsen Contents Introduction 2 Reflection on John Perkins’ Sincerity 3 What Do the Voices From Below Show? 5 How Can Institutions Transform and End Malicious Practices? 6 How to Increase Awareness in Society? 8 Conclusive Thoughts about the Book 9 References 9 Introduction â€Å"Confessions of an Economic Hitman† by John Perkins, tells a story about his experience as an economic hitman at MAIN, with the goal to mislead andRead MoreLink Between Internet And The Internet1847 Words   |  8 Pages7% have no internet access at all, see figure3. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Working Class Youth and Moral Panic Free Essays

Why has the nineteenth century been associated with ‘a persistent panic over working class youth’? The events of the nineteenth century have often been described as turning points throughout Europe, the subsequent revolutions of the major powers of Europe led to significant change in the countries involved, additionally industrial revolutions and urbanization led to greater city populations. The question about youth firstly must be defined in a manor easily understood. How persistent the panic was is important in addition to this what panic was there. We will write a custom essay sample on Working Class Youth and Moral Panic or any similar topic only for you Order Now From the latter part of the 19th century these issues can be discussed with greater authority, and effects drawn more conclusively. ‘Moral panic’ is considered being a concern for the threat of social order or values as Stanley Cohen and Jock Young have emphasised. The context is vital during this period as British output doubled twice in the 19th century between 1830-1852 and 1852-80 which fundamentally changed Britain in a number of ways, before the revolution its estimated ? of the population lived in rural parts. Working longer for less in factories and higher living costs in an increasing urban country left many with very little. The relentless path that factory owners were able to take due to the government’s laissez-faire attitude led to another social change the breakdown of family life, safety was not an issue only profit, women and children worked hard and for little income. It is also argued that England was the world’s first urban nation, and urbanization meant that the majority of people lived in urban areas according to the consensus of 1861, an inevitable factor in a growing power. The aspects that caused panic- and/or ‘moral panic’- are also an important aspect as well as what led to the reactions of politicians and how the public reacted to youth, which could often be a product of journalism at the time. It should also be explained there was no distinct youth pre 1850’s, children entered adult life as soon as possible working in the various industries. And now there was a growing consciousness of not only the working class but of a ‘youth culture’ one which was ultimately conscious of itself. With this change in society and as problems occurred newspapers took advantage to emphasise story lines which, arguably in turn would lead to ‘moral panic’ to some degree. And as Eileen Janes Yeo explains that some of these ideas were ‘manufactured’ in the light of politicians creating these problems for them themselves to solve through social reform, creating further panic over the youth of tomorrow. An example of this can be seen by the mugging of an MP in 1862 or Garrotting as they were coined, held a small proportion of crimes but a press campaign resulted from this ‘†¦ Garrotte robberies was tiny, the press created sensations out of minor incidents. Parliament responded with ferocious legislation providing for offenders to be flogged as well as imprisoned. ’[1] Later Clive Emsley explains ‘Violence, especially violence with a sexual frisson, sold newspapers. But violent crime in the form of murder and street robbery never figured significantly in the statistics or in the courts. ’[2] This therefore verifies the effects that the press had on panic within a social context to some extent. On the other hand Andrew Davies argues differently agreeing with Humphries point of view in his writings ‘I would strongly endorse Humphries’ assertion that violent youth gangs were not an invention of the late Victorian press. ’[3] It should also be noted that to a degree many Victorian English thought that the Irish or more specifically the poor Irish were responsible for a large proportion of crime in some areas such as Lancashire. With the substantial increase in Irish immigration during the early Victorian period, the host society’s widespread belief in the innate criminality of the Irish-and, more particularly, of the Irish poor-formed an integral component of the negative side of the Irish stereotype’[4] The Dublin weekly newspaper added in 1868 â€Å"Nowhere in England can our countrymen consider themselves safe from English mob violence,† The press therefore had a degree of influence on the panic throughout England regardless of wheth er they overstated events or exaggerated them, which is not to say this was the case in these separate examples. As hand in hand they make the situation worse and can spread panic. There were on the other hand reasons for concern and panic within Britain during this time. There were considered to be many Scuttlers and such like which were not recorded during the time and as James Bent describes in his criminal life: reminiscences of forty-two years as a police officer ‘In the early 1890s, staff at the Manchester Royal Infirmary informed the police that â€Å"scarcely a day passed† Without the admission of someone who ad been injured in a scuttling affray’[5] this shows to a large degree that the presence of the police was either needed or attributed to events occurring and therefore persistent panic could be justified to some degree. In addition to this pick pocketing is considered a skill and thus meant training, which opens a new area of debate. The orphans that were taken in had to work for their lodging and this could be the case with picking pockets. This argues that most youths were pushed into crime due to poverty and unbearable backgrounds. Such was the need for the Ragged schools to bring those who did not have a chance at education for the varying reasons that hindered children in the 19th century. The Metropolitan police force is an important factor in scaling the panic of 19th century England as a centralized force that had more responsibility and imposed increasing numbers of laws is an obvious sign of control regardless of whether it was needed or not. It could be considered to be a reactionary attribute to what was happening whether it was to take precautions or act against the facing problems of youth culture. Increases in police forces in cities can also be drawn from the panic of Gang violence and scuttling. Philip Gooderson certainly argues the case, as for example the Salsford police increasing the force by around 30 in the years 1890-1. The various factory acts of the 19th century could also play a part in delinquency as it meant that less and less children were working therefore would either be in education or on the streets. It should also be considered that children had been taken advantage within industries for a long time and the possible effect this had on youth, the 19th century finally saw a slow and gradual intervention in this through various social reforms with such acts as the chimney sweeps act of 1840, which finally began to be enforced unlike previous reforms which were often ignored, as well as the numerous factory acts which allowed better conditions for children and women and age restrictions. The various institutions that were created during the 19th century are an obvious sign of ‘moral panic’ and clearly show one reason why the 19th century has often be concerned with youth. Schools such as the Ragged schools in 1844, Reformatories in 1854 and finally in 1857 Industrial schools, each of which were to their own as such and have varying ideals. However there are conflicting views upon how delinquents should have been treated, and there are a number of private voluntary additions that drove for a varying unishments opposed to prison, such as, Mary Carpenter, Sydney Turner and Mathew Davenport Hill whom helped in different ways to establish delinquency and aid such effects, this also argues the case for ‘moral panic’ as there were now debates on what was best for delinquents in form of punishments and education. Additionally the social welfare and acts of the 1850’s as well as the education act of 1876 introduced a number of industrial schoo ls and further developments within truant schools. There was a network of 208 schools: 43 reformatories, 132 industrial schools, 21 day industrials schools and 12 truant schools’[6] Heather Shore comments that ‘ The juvenile offender was not, then, an invention of the nineteenth century. However, it is clear that in this period a reconceptualisation of youth crime, and various developments in social policy, as well as the activities of certain individuals, resulted in a new language of youthful delinquency. Juvenile delinquency reiterated throughout the nineteenth and twentieth century’s, even today there is a concern for today and tomorrow’s youth as ideals are lost through different generations, not to mention the rise in knife and dangerous weapon crimes. Gang violence and criminality are still high today in London and other major cities with a similar average age of criminality ‘the average age of a teenager arrested for murder in 2008 (18. 1 yea rs) was four months older than the average age of a teenage murder arrestee in 1960 (17.   years)’[7] despite there being ‘moral panic’ for youth culture during the 19th century it’s not strictly persistent just to 19th century, as it is still of concern today. During the 18th and 19th century children worked for up to 18 hours a day, little or no education was offered as a result right and wrong was not always apparent and this is a contributing factor to delinquency and persistent panic in the 19th century, as modernity took hold of Britain and more liberal and welfare ideas were debated which stemmed concern for youth which had not been fully understood or considered in previous century’s. Bibliography Davies, Andrew youth gangs, masculinity and violence in late Victorian Manchester and Salford, Journal of Social History, Vol. 32, No. 2. (Winter, 1998), pp. 349-369 Emsley, Clive Crime and the Victorians Last updated 2011-02-17 http://www. bbc. co. uk/history/british/victorians/crime_01. shtml 02/02/12 Males, Mike A. Criminals and violent offenders getting older and older†¦ not â€Å"younger† 03/12/2010 http://www. cjcj. org/post/juvenile/justice/criminals/and/violent/offenders/getting/older/and/older/not/younger Accessed 02/03/2012 Pearson, Geoffrey Disturbing continuities: ‘Peaky blinders’ to ‘Hoodies’ ( CJM no. 65 Autumn 2006) Shore, Heather The idea of juvenile crime in 19th century England, History Today, June 2000 Swift, Roger Heroes or Villains? : The Irish, Crime, and Disorder in Victorian England : http://www. jstor. org/stable/4051670 Accessed: 06/03/2012 13:45 ———————– [1] Clive Emsley http://www. bbc. co. uk/history/british/victorians/crime_01. shtml [2] http://www. bbc. co. uk/history/british/victorians/crime_01. html [3] Andrew Davies youth gangs, masculinity and violence in late Victorian Manchester and Salford p. 4 [4] Roger Swift Heroes or Villains? : The Irish, Crime, and Disorder in Victorian England [5] Youth gangs, masculinity and violence in late Victorian Manchester and Salford, p. 5 [6] Heather Shore, The idea of juvenile crime in 19th century England, History Today, June 200 p. 7 [7]http://www. cjcj. org/po st/juvenile/justice/criminals/and/violent/offenders/getting/older/and/older/not/younger How to cite Working Class Youth and Moral Panic, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment Essay Example

Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment Paper His analysis identifies the fundamental changes in the nature and role of strategic planning over the past two decades. In response to the difficulties faced in tumultuous and unpredictable environments, he notes that strategic planning processes have become more informal, less staff driven, and more decentralized and strategic plans have become less specific, more goal focused, and shorter term. According to Grant, the role of strategic planning systems within company management has changed too as it has become less about detailed planning and more a method for organization and performance managing. Through interviews with company personnel, he came up with three trends common to all eight companies: shortening time horizons, a shift from detailed planning to strategic direction, and increased emphasis on performance planning (Grant 2003, p. 508). Despite the successful change of strategic planning systems to unstable environments, the study shows the effectiveness of companies strategic planning may also have deteriorated. Evidence of this includes the limited impacts of strategic planning processes on the quality of strategic decisions and little proof that the systems were actually beneficial to strategic innovation. Critical Article Review The company have chosen for my critical article review is Royal Dutch Shell. Using Grants data on Shells strategic planning practices during the late asss, will examine how the key points of the paper relate to the company and reflect upon the companys strategy implementation since then. Royal Dutch Shell, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo-Dutch multinational oil and gas corporation founded in 1907 (Shell, 2013). Shell was the largest oil and gas corporation in 1996 with sales revenue topping SSL 2. 8 billion and approximately 101 ,OHO employees (Grant 2003, p. 497). We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer While Shell has since Allen to the second largest company in the world in terms of revenue (after Complexion), it continues to rank as one of the worlds most valuable companies. The Emergence Of a New Strategic planning process While the planning systems of the 1 sass and asss were highly formalized, these systems had become far more informal by 1996-97 as there was less emphasis on written documentation and formal presentations, and more emphasis on open discussion (Grant 2003, p. 507). At the same time, strategic plans became less concerned with detailed planning and placed greater emphasis on more broadly defined goals. To communicate and guide their strategies, companies created mission and vision statements that helped establish long-term strategic objectives. In addition, increased emphasis was placed on performance planning as strategic plans shifted their focus away from forecasts and more towards financial and operational performance targets. As companies became more concerned with performance goals, the role of short and medium planning in the strategic planning process grew as well. Because Shell is a multinational and multitudinous operation, the company has chosen to use a strategy statement instead of a mission statement. Taken directly from the companys website, Shells strategy is listed below: Our strategy to generate profitable growth remains to drive forward with our investment programmer, to deliver sustainable growth and provide competitive returns to shareholders, while helping to meet global energy demand in a responsible way (Shell, 2013). As noted in Grants paper, this statement is indicative of strategic plannings shift to broad strategic direction. Rather than focus on lengthy programs of action, resource deployments, and commitments to specific projects, Shells strategy concentrates on financial and operational performance targets. One of the biggest challenges Shell faces is integrating shorter performance targets with longer-term performance goals. With this in mind, the company developed short-term profit targets that were consistent with building a longer-term competitive advantage. In its upstream strategy, the company focuses on finding new oil and gas reserves and developing major value- adding projects. For 2013, Shell summarizes its upstream strategy in three main points: 1) profitable growth and price upside, 2) greater than 80% Of total capital spending, and 3) sustained exploration investment (Shell, 2013). With its downstream strategy, its focus is on sustaining cash generation from its current assets and investments in growth markets. Shell lists stable capital employed, fewer refineries, and more concentrated marketing positions as its downstream goals for 2013 (Shell, 2013). Today, the common strategic planning objectives referred to in Grants paper-?financial targets, operating targets, safety and environment objectives, strategic mileposts, and capital expenditure limits-?are still relevant, as highlighted in Shells strategic plan (Grant 2003, p. 509). While Grant listed financial targets as being the top rarity for oil companies at the time, their priorities are starting to change. As climate change continues to cast a shadow on the global energy industry, companies like Shell are promising to meet global energy demand in a socially responsible and environmentally friendly way. Shell is committed to improving energy efficiency in its own operations, helping customers manage their own energy demands, and continuing to invest in new technologies that increase efficiency and reduce emissions in oil and gas production (Shell, 2013). The Shift to Scenario Planning As the accuracy of macroeconomic and arrest forecasts declined abruptly during the asss, the dangers of using medium-term forecasts as the foundation for corporate plans were exposed. During this time, companies reduced their forecasting efforts and downsized or even eliminated their economist staff in an attempt to better deal with changing market circumstances. In place of forecasts, many external analysts began using scenario planning. With scenario planning companies were able to replace single-point forecasts with alternative scenarios of the future which allowed decision-makers to be more aware of and responsive to changing market circumstances. Scenario planning has been at the heart of Shells business for over four decades. Since work began on the first Shell Scenarios document in 1972, scenario planning has helped Shell prepare for many eventualities and maintain business stability through even the most chaotic of times (Shell, 2013). Of the eight companies surveyed, Grant found Shell to be the only one to base its entire strategic planning process on scenario analyses. Shell is so keen on scenario planning that its analysts list this planning process as the main reason for the companys success over the past few decades. Considered by many to be the most important innovator with geared to scenario planning, the Shell Scenarios methodology has been adopted by many different companies and organizations worldwide. With Shells support, the Singapore Government starting implementing scenario planning in 1991 (Shell, 2013). Today, scenario planning is a central part of the Governments annual strategic planning process. Shells latest scenarios, Shell Energy Scenarios to 2050, help us think about the future of energy. Using two scenarios to look at the different ways it may develop, Shell will be better equipped to fulfill its goal of providing energy in responsible ways and helping TTS customers and investors as best it can. In the first scenario, called Scramble, little thought is given to more efficient energy use until supplies are scarce. Similarly, greenhouse gas emissions are not genuinely addressed until there is drastic climate change. In the second scenario, known as Blueprints, local communities start to tackle the challenges of environmental pollution, economic development, and energy security. Using techniques such as a carbon tax, a price is given to a critical mass of emissions which spawns a huge economic stimulus to the development of clean energy technologies. This scenario old result in lower carbon dioxide emissions.