Friday, May 22, 2020

Should Marijuana Be Legalized Essay - 1953 Words

Marijuana Medicine or a High What has been in the news for a couple of years now is the subject of marijuana, should it be legalized in your state or not? This seems to be an ongoing topic of conversation on the news and in social settings. As a parent this subject is one that should be taken serious for the future of our children and society in general. Taking a hard look at both sides of this debate can help parents weigh both ends of the spectrum. Marijuana should be legalized for medicinal purposes only to help patients who are suffering from cancer and other illnesses. Knowing how marijuana affects your thoughts and your decision making can hopefully give our youth a better understanding of this drug. The problem that will be investigated is should this drug be legalized for everyday use like cigarettes are or should it be legalized for medicinal purposes only. What this papers hopes to accomplish is informative information on the use of marijuana for everyday use or just to help someone cope with an illness. Also what effect can long term use of marijuana have on the individual and on our country as a whole? The history of marijuana is an interesting one to say the least. Marijuana which is also called hemp was originally introduced by the government in the seventeenth century. Hemp was to be used for the production of rope, sails, and clothing. (Marijuana is the mixture of dried, shredded flowers and leaves that comes from the hemp plant) (PBSShow MoreRelatedShould Marijuana Be Legalized?849 Words   |  4 Pageswhether marijuana should be legalized. Around 23 states have legalized marijuana for medical and recreational use. In the state of Illinois, medicinal use of marijuana has been passed on April 17, 2013. Since January 2014, patients are able to obtain marijuana with a doctor s recommendation. The new debate is whether marijuana should be legalized for the general public as a recreational drug. Although some believe that marijuana is harmless, and that it has benefici al medicinal uses, marijuana shouldRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1715 Words   |  7 PagesMarijuana in Society Cannabis, formally known as marijuana is a drug obtained from the tops, stems and leaves of the hemp plant cannabis. The drug is one of the most commonly used drugs in the world. Only substances like caffeine, nicotine and alcohol are used more (â€Å"Marijuana† 1). In the U. S. where some use it to feel â€Å"high† or get an escape from reality. The drug is referred to in many ways; weed, grass, pot, and or reefer are some common names used to describe the drug (â€Å"Marijuana† 1). Like mostRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1489 Words   |  6 Pagescannabis plant or marijuana is intended for use of a psychoactive drug or medicine. It is used for recreational or medical uses. In some religions, marijuana is predominantly used for spiritual purposes. Cannabis is indigenous to central and south Asia. Cannabis has been scientifically proven that you can not die from smoking marijuana. Marijuana should be legalized to help people with medical benefits, econo mic benefits, and criminal benefits. In eight states, marijuana was legalized for recreationalRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1245 Words   |  5 PagesMarijuana is a highly debatable topic that is rapidly gaining attention in society today.   Legalizing marijuana can benefit the economy of this nation through the creation of jobs, increased tax revenue, and a decrease in taxpayer money spent on law enforcement.   Ã‚  Many people would outlaw alcohol, cigarettes, fast food, gambling, and tanning beds because of the harmful effects they have on members of a society, but this is the United States of America; the land of the free and we should give peopleRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1010 Words   |  5 PagesThe legalization of marijuana became a heated political subject in the last few years. Twenty-one states in America have legalized medical marijuana. Colorado and Washington are the only states where marijuana can be purchased recreationally. Marijuana is the high THC level part of the cannabis plant, which gives users the â€Å"high† feeling. There is ample evidence that supports the argument that marijuana is beneficial. The government should legalize marijuana recreationally for three main reasonsRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1350 Words   |  6 Pagespolitics in the past decade would have to be the legalization of marijuana. The sale and production of marijuana have been legalized for medicinal uses in over twenty states and has been legalized for recreational uses in seven states. Despite the ongoing support for marijuana, it has yet to be fully legalized in the federal level due to cultural bias against â€Å"pot† smoking and the focus over its negative effects. However, legalizing marijuana has been proven to decrease the rate of incrimination in AmericaRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1231 Words   |  5 Pagesshows the positive benefits of marijuana, it remains illegal under federal law. In recent years, numerous states have defied federal law and legalized marijuana for both recreational and medicinal use. Arizona has legalized marijuana for medical use, but it still remains illegal to use recreationally. This is absurd, as the evidence gathered over the last few decades strongly supports the notion that it is safer than alcohol, a widely available substance. Marijuana being listed as a Schedule I drugRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized? Essay1457 Words   |  6 PagesSHOULD MARIJUANA BE LEGALIZED? Marijuana is a drug that has sparked much controversy over the past decade as to whether or not it should be legalized. People once thought of marijuana as a bad, mind-altering drug which changes a person’s personality which can lead to crime and violence through selling and buying it. In the past, the majority of citizens believed that marijuana is a harmful drug that should be kept off the market and out of the hands of the public. However, a recent study conductedRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1596 Words   |  7 Pages But what needs to be known before a user can safely and completely make the decision if trying Marijuana is a good idea? Many do not want the drug to be legalized because they claim that Cannabis is a â€Å"gateway drug†, meaning it will cause people to try harder drugs once their body builds up a resistance to Marijuana, because a stronger drug will be needed to reach a high state. This argument is often falsely related to the medical si de of the debate over legalization. It is claimed that this wouldRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?985 Words   |  4 PagesLegalize Marijuana Despite what people believe about marijuana, it hasn’t once proved to be the cause of any real issue. It makes you wonder what the reason as to why there is a war on drugs. Why is marijuana the main concern? Since the time that alcohol and tobacco became legal, people wonder why marijuana isn’t legal yet. The fact that marijuana is illegal is mainly caused by the amount of money, jobs, and pride invested in the drug war. Once the government starts anything, they stick to it. At

Friday, May 8, 2020

Political Awareness Essay - 1418 Words

Political Action Awareness Nurse leaders are aware that today’s health care system has many issues complicating the goal of quality patient care and outcomes for all. Nurse leaders must stay informed and become involved as an advocate influencing changes in policy, laws, and/or regulations that govern the health care system they practice in. At times the advocacy requires a nurse leader to become more involved beyond their immediate level of practice and into the world of politics and policy. The health care practice arena is impacted by decisions made by our legislative bodies at the federal and state levels. The changes in health care delivery methods, together with the political process and politicians increased involvement in†¦show more content†¦Without an avenue to remain current in the knowledge about changes in policy and laws a facility and the nurse leaders could be unable to make the best decisions in regard to nursing practice within the facility in light of changes being made in health care and the future of nursing practice. Importance of Maintaining Awareness The timing is right for every nurse and especially nurse leaders to become involved in health care delivery and reform. The issues at hand for health care offer the opportunity for nurse leaders to form alliances with influential people and groups through the sharing of personal experiences with legislative bodies or joining politically active professional organization committees working to make changes occur. Nurses are ethically responsible and accountable to abide by the Standards of Clinical Nursing and the Code of Ethics for Nurses. Within the Code of Ethics are standards that specifically address shaping the practice of nursing and a nurses responsibility not only to the profession of nursing and its practice in the promotion of the best patient care and outcomes, but addresses standards of clinicalShow MoreRelatedThe Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics1412 Words   |  6 PagesThe written word became not only the best way of recording the linear timeline of what happened when, but also the more abstract social and cultural aspects of everyday people living their everyday lives. History became the ideologies, fears, and political aggravations recorded in the books of the people, regardless of the genre. And as times changed, the predominant forms of writing changed to match them. Today, one specific form of writing that has become increasingly popular is argumentative orRead MoreCelebrity Activism732 Words   |  3 PagesAnthony guidetti English I 7 December 2012 Activism Awareness Do you think celebrity activism is a positive or negative thing? That’s the question. To me, I think celebrity activism has a very positive effect on society and should become more popular. More celebrities should become activists because activists have a long successful history, celebrity activism helps draw attention to all different kinds of issues activism gives celebrities an opportunity to use their wealth for the goodRead MoreEmotional Intelligence : Developing And Maintaining Healthy Relationships773 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"your ability to recognize and understand emotions in yourself and others, and your ability to use this awareness to manage your behavior and relationships† (p. 17). Emotional intelligence has two main competencies; 1) social: relates to the observation and interaction with others, and 2) personal: pertains to self-awareness and management. The competencies consist of four domains; 1) social-awareness: understanding and picking up on emotional cues of others, 2) relationship-management: developing andRead MoreSocial Welfare Policy Analysis For Social Workers Essay926 Words   |  4 Pagesinfluencing policy for medicaid expansion in Texas. This includes having a better idea on who our coalition partners are, these are individuals and groups who share a common goal and purpose. This also includes knowing some strategies to increase public awareness, and as well what potential barriers may lie ahead that could possibly influence our success. Coalition Partners The state of Texas currently has a coalition set up solely to help with medicaid expansion in Texas, the coalition is called CoverRead MoreSelf Awareness And Self Knowledge758 Words   |  4 PagesSelf-awareness and self-knowledge in relationships What self-knowledge?   It can not be bought at the price of effort or practice. Self-knowledge happens by observing yourself in your relationship with your classmates, your teachers and all those around you; it happens when you observe the ways of the other, his gestures, his way of dressing, talking, contempt or flattery, and your reaction; it happens when you observe everything that is happening in you and around you and you see as clearly asRead MoreAnalysis Of Nathaniel Branden s The Art Of Living 1236 Words   |  5 PagesThe Art of Living Consciously: The Power of Awareness to Transform Everyday Life, Nathaniel Branden challenges his readers to turn up the light of consciousness, explaining that consciousness exists on a continuum, and our choice is between living more or less consciously. Consciousness is our basic tool for successful modification to reality. The more conscious we are in any situation, the more possibilities we tend to notice, the more options we have, the more powerful we are , even the longerRead MoreConfessions Of An Economic Hitman Essay2564 Words   |  11 PagesPacker Christ-Arnaud Lacombe Marion Mayer Ulrik Karlsen Contents Introduction 2 Reflection on John Perkins’ Sincerity 3 What Do the Voices From Below Show? 5 How Can Institutions Transform and End Malicious Practices? 6 How to Increase Awareness in Society? 8 Conclusive Thoughts about the Book 9 References 9 Introduction â€Å"Confessions of an Economic Hitman† by John Perkins, tells a story about his experience as an economic hitman at MAIN, with the goal to mislead andRead MoreLink Between Internet And The Internet1847 Words   |  8 Pages7% have no internet access at all, see figure3. On the other hand people surveyed from RSC-Sample indicate that they using 3G mobile broadband technology with rate of 79.2% and the rest have no internet access at all. †¢ People Awareness of the innovation. The awareness and usage among the population of the LSC-Sample is relatively low. According to the surveyed responses, 45.2 per cent of the citizens were not at all aware of eServices, 10.3 slightly aware but not using them where 17.6 per centRead MoreSelf Awareness3085 Words   |  13 PagesSelf Awareness    What is self awareness?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Self awareness is a way for us to explore our individual personalities, value systems, beliefs, natural inclinations, and tendencies.   Because we are all different in the way we react to things, learn, and synthesize information, it’s helpful to occasionally spend time in self-reflection to gain a better insight into ourselves. Why is self awareness important? Self awareness is important because when we have a better understanding of ourselves, we areRead MoreGlobal Awareness : Global And Cultural Perspectives With Social, Political, Cultural, And Environmental Components1105 Words   |  5 PagesGlobal Awareness Global awareness is the understanding of global and cultural perspectives with social, political, cultural, and environmental components. The key to understanding the commonalities and differences between people lies in global awareness while also promoting sensitivity to the impact globalization has on the world. Awareness of the interconnectedness of the world today promotes better partnerships between educational institutions, government organizations, and businesses that work

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Working Class Youth and Moral Panic Free Essays

Why has the nineteenth century been associated with ‘a persistent panic over working class youth’? The events of the nineteenth century have often been described as turning points throughout Europe, the subsequent revolutions of the major powers of Europe led to significant change in the countries involved, additionally industrial revolutions and urbanization led to greater city populations. The question about youth firstly must be defined in a manor easily understood. How persistent the panic was is important in addition to this what panic was there. We will write a custom essay sample on Working Class Youth and Moral Panic or any similar topic only for you Order Now From the latter part of the 19th century these issues can be discussed with greater authority, and effects drawn more conclusively. ‘Moral panic’ is considered being a concern for the threat of social order or values as Stanley Cohen and Jock Young have emphasised. The context is vital during this period as British output doubled twice in the 19th century between 1830-1852 and 1852-80 which fundamentally changed Britain in a number of ways, before the revolution its estimated ? of the population lived in rural parts. Working longer for less in factories and higher living costs in an increasing urban country left many with very little. The relentless path that factory owners were able to take due to the government’s laissez-faire attitude led to another social change the breakdown of family life, safety was not an issue only profit, women and children worked hard and for little income. It is also argued that England was the world’s first urban nation, and urbanization meant that the majority of people lived in urban areas according to the consensus of 1861, an inevitable factor in a growing power. The aspects that caused panic- and/or ‘moral panic’- are also an important aspect as well as what led to the reactions of politicians and how the public reacted to youth, which could often be a product of journalism at the time. It should also be explained there was no distinct youth pre 1850’s, children entered adult life as soon as possible working in the various industries. And now there was a growing consciousness of not only the working class but of a ‘youth culture’ one which was ultimately conscious of itself. With this change in society and as problems occurred newspapers took advantage to emphasise story lines which, arguably in turn would lead to ‘moral panic’ to some degree. And as Eileen Janes Yeo explains that some of these ideas were ‘manufactured’ in the light of politicians creating these problems for them themselves to solve through social reform, creating further panic over the youth of tomorrow. An example of this can be seen by the mugging of an MP in 1862 or Garrotting as they were coined, held a small proportion of crimes but a press campaign resulted from this ‘†¦ Garrotte robberies was tiny, the press created sensations out of minor incidents. Parliament responded with ferocious legislation providing for offenders to be flogged as well as imprisoned. ’[1] Later Clive Emsley explains ‘Violence, especially violence with a sexual frisson, sold newspapers. But violent crime in the form of murder and street robbery never figured significantly in the statistics or in the courts. ’[2] This therefore verifies the effects that the press had on panic within a social context to some extent. On the other hand Andrew Davies argues differently agreeing with Humphries point of view in his writings ‘I would strongly endorse Humphries’ assertion that violent youth gangs were not an invention of the late Victorian press. ’[3] It should also be noted that to a degree many Victorian English thought that the Irish or more specifically the poor Irish were responsible for a large proportion of crime in some areas such as Lancashire. With the substantial increase in Irish immigration during the early Victorian period, the host society’s widespread belief in the innate criminality of the Irish-and, more particularly, of the Irish poor-formed an integral component of the negative side of the Irish stereotype’[4] The Dublin weekly newspaper added in 1868 â€Å"Nowhere in England can our countrymen consider themselves safe from English mob violence,† The press therefore had a degree of influence on the panic throughout England regardless of wheth er they overstated events or exaggerated them, which is not to say this was the case in these separate examples. As hand in hand they make the situation worse and can spread panic. There were on the other hand reasons for concern and panic within Britain during this time. There were considered to be many Scuttlers and such like which were not recorded during the time and as James Bent describes in his criminal life: reminiscences of forty-two years as a police officer ‘In the early 1890s, staff at the Manchester Royal Infirmary informed the police that â€Å"scarcely a day passed† Without the admission of someone who ad been injured in a scuttling affray’[5] this shows to a large degree that the presence of the police was either needed or attributed to events occurring and therefore persistent panic could be justified to some degree. In addition to this pick pocketing is considered a skill and thus meant training, which opens a new area of debate. The orphans that were taken in had to work for their lodging and this could be the case with picking pockets. This argues that most youths were pushed into crime due to poverty and unbearable backgrounds. Such was the need for the Ragged schools to bring those who did not have a chance at education for the varying reasons that hindered children in the 19th century. The Metropolitan police force is an important factor in scaling the panic of 19th century England as a centralized force that had more responsibility and imposed increasing numbers of laws is an obvious sign of control regardless of whether it was needed or not. It could be considered to be a reactionary attribute to what was happening whether it was to take precautions or act against the facing problems of youth culture. Increases in police forces in cities can also be drawn from the panic of Gang violence and scuttling. Philip Gooderson certainly argues the case, as for example the Salsford police increasing the force by around 30 in the years 1890-1. The various factory acts of the 19th century could also play a part in delinquency as it meant that less and less children were working therefore would either be in education or on the streets. It should also be considered that children had been taken advantage within industries for a long time and the possible effect this had on youth, the 19th century finally saw a slow and gradual intervention in this through various social reforms with such acts as the chimney sweeps act of 1840, which finally began to be enforced unlike previous reforms which were often ignored, as well as the numerous factory acts which allowed better conditions for children and women and age restrictions. The various institutions that were created during the 19th century are an obvious sign of ‘moral panic’ and clearly show one reason why the 19th century has often be concerned with youth. Schools such as the Ragged schools in 1844, Reformatories in 1854 and finally in 1857 Industrial schools, each of which were to their own as such and have varying ideals. However there are conflicting views upon how delinquents should have been treated, and there are a number of private voluntary additions that drove for a varying unishments opposed to prison, such as, Mary Carpenter, Sydney Turner and Mathew Davenport Hill whom helped in different ways to establish delinquency and aid such effects, this also argues the case for ‘moral panic’ as there were now debates on what was best for delinquents in form of punishments and education. Additionally the social welfare and acts of the 1850’s as well as the education act of 1876 introduced a number of industrial schoo ls and further developments within truant schools. There was a network of 208 schools: 43 reformatories, 132 industrial schools, 21 day industrials schools and 12 truant schools’[6] Heather Shore comments that ‘ The juvenile offender was not, then, an invention of the nineteenth century. However, it is clear that in this period a reconceptualisation of youth crime, and various developments in social policy, as well as the activities of certain individuals, resulted in a new language of youthful delinquency. Juvenile delinquency reiterated throughout the nineteenth and twentieth century’s, even today there is a concern for today and tomorrow’s youth as ideals are lost through different generations, not to mention the rise in knife and dangerous weapon crimes. Gang violence and criminality are still high today in London and other major cities with a similar average age of criminality ‘the average age of a teenager arrested for murder in 2008 (18. 1 yea rs) was four months older than the average age of a teenage murder arrestee in 1960 (17.   years)’[7] despite there being ‘moral panic’ for youth culture during the 19th century it’s not strictly persistent just to 19th century, as it is still of concern today. During the 18th and 19th century children worked for up to 18 hours a day, little or no education was offered as a result right and wrong was not always apparent and this is a contributing factor to delinquency and persistent panic in the 19th century, as modernity took hold of Britain and more liberal and welfare ideas were debated which stemmed concern for youth which had not been fully understood or considered in previous century’s. Bibliography Davies, Andrew youth gangs, masculinity and violence in late Victorian Manchester and Salford, Journal of Social History, Vol. 32, No. 2. (Winter, 1998), pp. 349-369 Emsley, Clive Crime and the Victorians Last updated 2011-02-17 http://www. bbc. co. uk/history/british/victorians/crime_01. shtml 02/02/12 Males, Mike A. Criminals and violent offenders getting older and older†¦ not â€Å"younger† 03/12/2010 http://www. cjcj. org/post/juvenile/justice/criminals/and/violent/offenders/getting/older/and/older/not/younger Accessed 02/03/2012 Pearson, Geoffrey Disturbing continuities: ‘Peaky blinders’ to ‘Hoodies’ ( CJM no. 65 Autumn 2006) Shore, Heather The idea of juvenile crime in 19th century England, History Today, June 2000 Swift, Roger Heroes or Villains? : The Irish, Crime, and Disorder in Victorian England : http://www. jstor. org/stable/4051670 Accessed: 06/03/2012 13:45 ———————– [1] Clive Emsley http://www. bbc. co. uk/history/british/victorians/crime_01. shtml [2] http://www. bbc. co. uk/history/british/victorians/crime_01. html [3] Andrew Davies youth gangs, masculinity and violence in late Victorian Manchester and Salford p. 4 [4] Roger Swift Heroes or Villains? : The Irish, Crime, and Disorder in Victorian England [5] Youth gangs, masculinity and violence in late Victorian Manchester and Salford, p. 5 [6] Heather Shore, The idea of juvenile crime in 19th century England, History Today, June 200 p. 7 [7]http://www. cjcj. org/po st/juvenile/justice/criminals/and/violent/offenders/getting/older/and/older/not/younger How to cite Working Class Youth and Moral Panic, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment Essay Example

Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment Paper His analysis identifies the fundamental changes in the nature and role of strategic planning over the past two decades. In response to the difficulties faced in tumultuous and unpredictable environments, he notes that strategic planning processes have become more informal, less staff driven, and more decentralized and strategic plans have become less specific, more goal focused, and shorter term. According to Grant, the role of strategic planning systems within company management has changed too as it has become less about detailed planning and more a method for organization and performance managing. Through interviews with company personnel, he came up with three trends common to all eight companies: shortening time horizons, a shift from detailed planning to strategic direction, and increased emphasis on performance planning (Grant 2003, p. 508). Despite the successful change of strategic planning systems to unstable environments, the study shows the effectiveness of companies strategic planning may also have deteriorated. Evidence of this includes the limited impacts of strategic planning processes on the quality of strategic decisions and little proof that the systems were actually beneficial to strategic innovation. Critical Article Review The company have chosen for my critical article review is Royal Dutch Shell. Using Grants data on Shells strategic planning practices during the late asss, will examine how the key points of the paper relate to the company and reflect upon the companys strategy implementation since then. Royal Dutch Shell, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo-Dutch multinational oil and gas corporation founded in 1907 (Shell, 2013). Shell was the largest oil and gas corporation in 1996 with sales revenue topping SSL 2. 8 billion and approximately 101 ,OHO employees (Grant 2003, p. 497). We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer While Shell has since Allen to the second largest company in the world in terms of revenue (after Complexion), it continues to rank as one of the worlds most valuable companies. The Emergence Of a New Strategic planning process While the planning systems of the 1 sass and asss were highly formalized, these systems had become far more informal by 1996-97 as there was less emphasis on written documentation and formal presentations, and more emphasis on open discussion (Grant 2003, p. 507). At the same time, strategic plans became less concerned with detailed planning and placed greater emphasis on more broadly defined goals. To communicate and guide their strategies, companies created mission and vision statements that helped establish long-term strategic objectives. In addition, increased emphasis was placed on performance planning as strategic plans shifted their focus away from forecasts and more towards financial and operational performance targets. As companies became more concerned with performance goals, the role of short and medium planning in the strategic planning process grew as well. Because Shell is a multinational and multitudinous operation, the company has chosen to use a strategy statement instead of a mission statement. Taken directly from the companys website, Shells strategy is listed below: Our strategy to generate profitable growth remains to drive forward with our investment programmer, to deliver sustainable growth and provide competitive returns to shareholders, while helping to meet global energy demand in a responsible way (Shell, 2013). As noted in Grants paper, this statement is indicative of strategic plannings shift to broad strategic direction. Rather than focus on lengthy programs of action, resource deployments, and commitments to specific projects, Shells strategy concentrates on financial and operational performance targets. One of the biggest challenges Shell faces is integrating shorter performance targets with longer-term performance goals. With this in mind, the company developed short-term profit targets that were consistent with building a longer-term competitive advantage. In its upstream strategy, the company focuses on finding new oil and gas reserves and developing major value- adding projects. For 2013, Shell summarizes its upstream strategy in three main points: 1) profitable growth and price upside, 2) greater than 80% Of total capital spending, and 3) sustained exploration investment (Shell, 2013). With its downstream strategy, its focus is on sustaining cash generation from its current assets and investments in growth markets. Shell lists stable capital employed, fewer refineries, and more concentrated marketing positions as its downstream goals for 2013 (Shell, 2013). Today, the common strategic planning objectives referred to in Grants paper-?financial targets, operating targets, safety and environment objectives, strategic mileposts, and capital expenditure limits-?are still relevant, as highlighted in Shells strategic plan (Grant 2003, p. 509). While Grant listed financial targets as being the top rarity for oil companies at the time, their priorities are starting to change. As climate change continues to cast a shadow on the global energy industry, companies like Shell are promising to meet global energy demand in a socially responsible and environmentally friendly way. Shell is committed to improving energy efficiency in its own operations, helping customers manage their own energy demands, and continuing to invest in new technologies that increase efficiency and reduce emissions in oil and gas production (Shell, 2013). The Shift to Scenario Planning As the accuracy of macroeconomic and arrest forecasts declined abruptly during the asss, the dangers of using medium-term forecasts as the foundation for corporate plans were exposed. During this time, companies reduced their forecasting efforts and downsized or even eliminated their economist staff in an attempt to better deal with changing market circumstances. In place of forecasts, many external analysts began using scenario planning. With scenario planning companies were able to replace single-point forecasts with alternative scenarios of the future which allowed decision-makers to be more aware of and responsive to changing market circumstances. Scenario planning has been at the heart of Shells business for over four decades. Since work began on the first Shell Scenarios document in 1972, scenario planning has helped Shell prepare for many eventualities and maintain business stability through even the most chaotic of times (Shell, 2013). Of the eight companies surveyed, Grant found Shell to be the only one to base its entire strategic planning process on scenario analyses. Shell is so keen on scenario planning that its analysts list this planning process as the main reason for the companys success over the past few decades. Considered by many to be the most important innovator with geared to scenario planning, the Shell Scenarios methodology has been adopted by many different companies and organizations worldwide. With Shells support, the Singapore Government starting implementing scenario planning in 1991 (Shell, 2013). Today, scenario planning is a central part of the Governments annual strategic planning process. Shells latest scenarios, Shell Energy Scenarios to 2050, help us think about the future of energy. Using two scenarios to look at the different ways it may develop, Shell will be better equipped to fulfill its goal of providing energy in responsible ways and helping TTS customers and investors as best it can. In the first scenario, called Scramble, little thought is given to more efficient energy use until supplies are scarce. Similarly, greenhouse gas emissions are not genuinely addressed until there is drastic climate change. In the second scenario, known as Blueprints, local communities start to tackle the challenges of environmental pollution, economic development, and energy security. Using techniques such as a carbon tax, a price is given to a critical mass of emissions which spawns a huge economic stimulus to the development of clean energy technologies. This scenario old result in lower carbon dioxide emissions.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

The 14 ACT Grammar Rules You Must Know

The 14 ACT Grammar Rules You Must Know SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The ACT English section consists of questions that test your knowledge of grammar and writing style. By learning and understanding the grammar rules tested on the ACT, you'll be well on your way to getting an excellent ACT English score. In this article, I'll explain the most important ACT English grammar rules and provide sample questions from real ACTs. How to Use This Guide to ACT Grammar Rules The ACT English section tests numerous grammatical concepts, with many appearing consistently on every test.In this guide, I’ll give you explanations and examples for the most commonly tested ACT grammar rules.Keep in mind that there are also style and organization questions on ACT English that are unrelated to specific grammar rules. This article is a great study tool if you are trying to get a middle score, just starting your ACT English studying, or reviewing the most importantACT grammar rules.If your target score is above 30, you should also study the grammar rules that are only rarely tested on the ACT. For more examples or explanations of the rules I discuss below, or if you want to learn more about ACT grammar rules,read our other articles onACT English. The 14 Most Commonly Tested ACT Grammar Rules These rules are by far the most important for you to learn and understand in order to conquer the ACT English section. I've linked each rule to the article in which it's explained more thoroughly. You can also find in these articles explanations for related grammar rules that are less important but still tested on the ACT. #1: Surround Non-Restrictive Clauses and Appositives With Commas Comma rules are extremely important to know for the ACT, and these comma rules are repeatedly tested on ACT English. Relative Clauses: Restrictive vs Non-Restrictive Relative clauses are dependent clauses that describe a noun and start with a relative pronoun or adverb such as "who," "that," "which," or "where." The basic rule is that non-restrictive clauses should be surrounded by commas, whereas restrictive clauses should not be. On the ACT, clauses that start with "which" are always non-restrictive, and clauses that start with â€Å"that† are always restrictive.Therefore, clauses that start with â€Å"which† should always be surrounded by commas, whilethose that start with â€Å"that† should never be. What's a Restrictive Clause? Restrictive clauses are essential to the meaning of the sentence. You can’t take a restrictive clause out of a sentence without significantly changing the meaning of the sentence. Here’s an example: People who wear sunglasses indoors aren’t invited to the party. If you remove the clause "who wear sunglasses indoors," you substantially change the meaning of the sentence. You wouldn't know which people aren't invited, and you’d be left with "People aren’t invited to the party."Because you can’t remove this clause without changing the meaning of the sentence, the clause should not be surrounded by commas. This kid can't come to the party. (Court Kizer/Flickr) What's a Non-Restrictive Clause? A non-restrictive clause is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. If you got rid of the clause, the sentence would still make sense, and its meaning wouldn’t change.Here’s an example sentence with the non-restrictive clause underlined: My day, which consisted of eating and studying calculus, was incredibly boring. The clause "which consisted of eating and studying calculus" adds more information about my day, but if it were removed, the overall meaning of the sentence would be unchanged. This is what the sentence looks like if we remove the non-restrictive clause: My day was incredibly boring. As you can see, the overall meaning of the sentence is the same. The sentence is still describing my day as boring; we just have less information detailing why it was boring. Actual ACT Example The clause "who had gathered essential material critical to writing his best-selling novel Roots from a griot in Gambia" is a non-restrictive clause which adds more information about Alex Haley. Since a non-restrictive clause must be surrounded by commas, the correct answer is D. What Is an Appositive? An appositive is a descriptive phrase that doesn’t include a verb. Like a non-restrictive clause, an appositive can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence. Here’s an example sentence with the appositive underlined: Lily, my niece, is the most exceptional child in the world. If we get rid of the appositive, the sentence still has the same meaning: Lily is the most exceptional child in the world. This isn't my niece. Actual ACT Example The phrase "known as the Navajo code talkers" is an appositive and thereforemust be surrounded by commas. Because the original sentence is correct,the correct answer is F.Answer choices G and J are both wrong because there is no comma after "group." Also, answer choice H is incorrect because it creates a run-on sentence. #2: Don't Put a Comma Before or After a Preposition On the ACT, it’s always incorrect to put a comma after a preposition and very rarely correct to place one before.Here are some example sentences that include commas incorrectly placed before or after prepositions: Ana enjoys traveling, to Hawaii for fun. Lucy was petrified to look under, the bed. The commas before "to" and after "under" should be removed. Here are the corrected versions of the sentences: Ana enjoys traveling to Hawaii for fun. Lucy was petrified to look under the bed. brownpau/Flickr The one exception to this rule is when a preposition introduces a non-restrictive clause. Here’s an example of this: Cade, with whom I went to college, is an extremely skilled physician. The clause "with whom I went to college" is a non-restrictive clause that provides more information about Cade. Because non-restrictive clauses must be surrounded by commas, the comma before the preposition "with" is correct. Keep in mind that this situation rarely comes up on the ACT. Generally, commas shouldn’t be put before or after a preposition on the test. Actual ACT Example The comma before the preposition "of" is wrong; there also shouldn’t be any comma after "rights." Therefore, the correct answer is C. On the ACT, if you’re unsure whether or not there should be a comma, it's best toerr on the side of leaving the comma out. #3: Don't Separate Two Independent Clauses With a Comma Separating two complete thoughts with a comma is a grammar error known as a comma splice, and it's the most common type of run-on sentence that appears on the ACT. Here's an example of a comma splice: I’m going to my friend’s house, it’s really far away. As you can see, the clauses before and after the comma are complete thoughts that could stand alone as sentences. There are a few ways to correct a comma splice. One is to place a conjunction after the comma: I’m going to my friend’s house, but it’s really far away. Alternatively, you can put a relative pronoun after the comma: I’m going to my friend’s house, which is really far away. Finally, you can use a semicolon to correctly separate two complete thoughts: I’m going to my friend’s house; it’s really far away. I'm not sure what this means. (Laura Olin/Flickr) Actual ACT Example Both clauses before and after the comma are independent and could stand alone as sentences; therefore, this sentence is a comma splice. Since adding a conjunction after the comma corrects the comma splice, the correct answer is B.While answer choice C also adds a conjunction, this choice doesn’t work since the word "so" doesn’t make sense in the context of the sentence. ("So" implies a cause-effect relationship, whereas "and" connects two related thoughts.) #4: Use the Fewest Words Possible When it comes to the ACT, the shortest, grammatically correct answer choice that expresses the same information as the original sentence will be the right answer.Sentences that are more concise are easier to comprehend. Wordiness On ACT English, wordiness is a grammatical error in which words or phrases are added to a sentence unnecessarily. Here's an example of a wordy sentence: Melissa enjoys having fun by way of shooting at the gun range. And here is the corrected version of the sentence: Melissa enjoys shooting at the gun range. Clearly, the second sentence is more concise, and it stillcontains all the relevant information that’s in the first sentence. That looks like a fancy gun- but, then again, I don't know anything about guns. Actual ACT Example The phrase "as time goes by" is unnecessary- it doesn’t add any information that can’t be inferred without it. Answer choices B and C are incorrect because the sentence already implies that her collection grows "gradually" and "with the passing of time." Thus, the correct answer is D. Redundancy Wordiness and redundancy are similar errors. Ifa word or phrase is redundant, this means it can be eliminated without altering the meaning of the sentence. Here is an example of a sentence with a redundancy error (the underlined part): I quickly finished the test in a rapid manner. The phrase "in a rapid manner" is redundant because the word "quickly" already implies that I finished the test rapidly. This sentence can therefore be corrected by simply getting rid of the redundant phrase: I quickly finished the test. Actual ACT Example The word "peril" means danger; therefore, the phrase "dangerous peril" is redundant- that is, the word "dangerous" can be eliminated without changing the meaning of the sentence. This means thecorrect answer is J. Jumping out of an airplane can put your life in peril. (Morgan Sherwood/Flickr) #5: Modifiers Must Be Next to What They're Modifying The general rule regarding modifiers is that they must be placed next to whatever it is they're modifying. On ACT English, there are two types of modifier errors, which we introduce below. Misplaced Modifiers Generally, adjectives and adverbs go before the word they’re modifying, and prepositional phrases go after the word they’re modifying. Here's an example of a misplaced modifier: George broke the plate inthe kitchen that his mom bought on their vacation. The way the sentence is written makes it seem as though George’s mom bought the kitchen(instead of the plate) on their vacation. Here is a corrected version of the sentence: In the kitchen, George broke the plate that his mom bought on their vacation. Now, it’s evident that George's mom bought the plate- not a kitchen!- on their vacation. Actual ACT Example The phrase "in pink-tinted glasses" should come after the word it’s modifying. From the sentence, we can safely assume that it was the woman who was in pink-tinted glasses. Answer choice G is the most logical, grammatically correct answer. Dangling Modifiers When a sentence begins with a modifying phrase, the introductory phrase must be immediately followed by a comma and the noun being described. Here’s an example of a dangling modifier, with the incorrect part underlined: While walking through the grocery store, Jane’s shopping cart knocked three bags of Doritos onto the floor. The way the sentence is written makes it seem as though Jane’s shopping cart- instead of Jane- was walking through the grocery store. There are a couple of ways to fix the sentence. One is to place the noun that's being modified right after the comma: While walking through the grocery story, Jane knocked three bags of Doritos onto the floor with her shopping cart. Alternatively, you can place the subject in the introductory phrase: While Jane was walking through the grocery story, her shopping cart knocked three bags of Doritos onto the floor. Be careful with the Doritos. (theimpulsivebuy/Flickr) Actual ACT Example The original sentence implies that "she" died down; however, this doesn’t make much sense. From this sentence, we can infer that a fire dies down- not "she."Answer choice J is clear and concise, and it corrects the dangling modifier. #6: Keep Verb Tenses Consistent The basic verb consistency rule is that verbs should remain consistent in both tense and form throughout a sentence.Here’s an example of a consistency error, with the incorrect part underlined: Twenty-five years ago, Josh bought Cross Colours clothing and learns how to rap. The verb "learns" should be in the past tense. Not only should "learns" be consistent with the past tense "bought," but also the phrase "twenty-five years ago" indicates that this was something that happened in the past. Here's the corrected version of the sentence: Twenty-five years ago, Josh bought Cross Colours clothing and learned how to rap. Furthermore, the verb tenses of surrounding sentences can provide context clues for the proper tense to use in a given sentence to maintain consistency. Here's another example of a consistency error: Natalie works in fashion. She liked keeping up with the latest style trends. The shift from the present tense "works" to the past tense "liked" doesn’t make sense in context, and the verb tenses should remain consistent. Here's a corrected version of the sentence: Natalie works in fashion. She likes keeping up with the latest style trends. Actual ACT Example The verbs "continue" in the first sentence and "score" in the second sentence are in the present tense; as a result,the shift to the past tense with the word "were" doesn’t make sense given the context. To fix this error, we must change "were" to the present tense. The correct answer is C. (Answer choice D unnecessarily adds the infinitive "to be.") #7: Choose the Right Word Based on Context Word choice is a common topic on the ACT English section. Word choice refers to knowing which specific word to use in the context of a given sentence. There are two common types of word choice questions that often appear on the ACT. Homophones Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings.Here are some homophones that have appeared on the ACT: its - it's their - they're whose - who's would've - would of All the words with apostrophes are contractions (it's = it is, they're = they are, who's = who is, and would've = would have). By contrast, "its," "their," and "whose" show possession. Finally,"would of" is always wrong and should be corrected to either "would have" or "would've." You might also come across the word "its'," which is not a real word and will thus always be incorrect. Here is an example of a word choice error: The committee chose not to defend it’s decision. In this sentence, the use of the contraction "it's" is incorrect. Instead, we should use the possessive word "its" to indicate thatthe decision belongs tothe committee: The committee chose not to defend its decision. Related Words The second type of word choice error on the ACT involves synonyms or related words. With this type of question, a word will be underlined and the answer choices will be related words. However, only one word will be correct given the context of the sentence. Actual ACT Example The context of this sentence indicates that the underlined word should signify that the celebration is made bigger or more important. Even though "heightened," "raised," and "lifted" can all mean making something higher, only the word "heighten" can mean to deepen or intensify. Therefore, the correctanswer is A.The celebration isn’t literally lifted up but rather made more important. These types of questions can be difficult becausethey require a deep knowledge of vocabulary. They’re hard to prepare for since you don’t know which words will appear on the ACT. However, if you are able to recognize a word choice question, hopefully you’ll be able to select the right word using the context of the sentence. Also, you can keep track of word choice questions from previous ACTs. #8: Use the Correct Idiomatic Expression Idiom questions don’t conform to specific rules. You have to rely on your intuitive grasp of English and your knowledge of specific phrases to choose the right idiomatic expression. On most idiom questions on the ACT, you’ll be asked either to determine which preposition to use in a given sentence, or whether to use a gerund or an infinitive. Prepositional Idioms For prepositional idioms, you need to know which preposition to use based on the context of the sentence. Here’s an example sentence with a prepositional idiom error underlined: Because Alexis was three hours late, I was worried of her. The correct expression is "worried about." There's no specific rule you can learn to identify this error; you just have to be familiar with the phrase. Idiom questions are the only types on ACT English for which it's in your best interest to rely on what sounds right. Idioms With Gerunds or Infinitives Gerunds are verbs that act as nouns and end in "ing."Examples of gerunds include "running," "talking," and "singing."Infinitives are verbs used as nouns; they are constructed by putting the word "to" before a verb.Examples of infinitives are "to run," "to talk," and "to sing." While gerunds and infinitives can be interchangeable in some sentences, other sentences require the use of one or the other.Here’s an example of an idiom error: You decided reading this article. In the sentence, the gerund "reading" should be changed to an infinitive: You decided to read this article. Unfortunately, there is no specific rule you can rely on to know when to use a gerund or infinitive in an expression. Try to use your knowledge of idioms and keep track of idiom questions on previous ACTs. Actual ACT Example The correct expression is "right to wear clothing," sothe correct answer is C. Enokson/Flickr #9: A Pronoun Must Agree With Its Antecedent This rule means that a pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number. A plural pronoun must refer to a plural noun, and a singular pronoun must refer to a singular noun.Here's an example of a pronoun number agreement error: Marshall forgot their homework. The pronoun "their" is referring to the homework of Marshall. Because Marshall is one person and "their" is a plural pronoun, this sentence has a pronoun agreement error. Here is the corrected version of this sentence: Marshall forgot his homework. Real ACT Example In this sentence, the plural pronoun "them" refers to the Navajo language, which is singular. The pronoun "it" at the end of the sentence also indicates that the underlined pronoun should be in the singular form. The correct answer is C.Answer choice B is wrong because it has a subject-verb agreement error. #10: Use Apostrophes Correctly to Form Possessives There are almost always a couple of apostrophe questions on the ACT. If you know apostrophe rules, these questions should be relatively simple. If a word is singular or plural and does not end in "s," you add an "s" after the apostrophe to make it possessive.Here are a couple of examples: I am the people’s champion. Joe’s career isn’t going very well. To create a possessive for a plural word that ends in "s," just add an apostrophe after the "s." Here is an example of this: The traditionalist thought that all of the basketball players’ shorts were too long. Actual ACT Example This sentence is referring to the age of one person; therefore, the correct version of the possessive pronoun is "person’s."The correct answer is A.Answer choice D is wrong because a comma can’t come between a subject and a verb. #11: Colons Must Come After a Complete Sentence Colons are usually used to introduce lists or explanations.The key rule for colons is that they must come after a complete sentence. So if you were to end the sentence where the colon is placed, the sentence should make sense and be a complete thought.Here is an example: Incorrect: Sabrina needs to purchase a few items for her project like: construction paper, paint, and glitter. Correct: Sabrina needs to purchase a few items for her project: construction paper, paint, and glitter. The first sentence is incorrect because the part of the sentence that comes before the colon isn’t a complete thought. Actual ACT Example In this sentence, the colon is unnecessary and improperly placed. The part before the colon isn’t a complete thought. In answer choices H and J, the commas are unnecessary. The correct answer is therefore answer choice G. #12: Semicolons Separate Two Complete Thoughts Semicolons are like periods; they separate two independent clauses.As a result, you should be able to replace any semicolon with a period. On ACT English, you might find a randomly placed semicolon or need to replace a comma with a semicolon in order to fix a comma splice.Here are two example sentences with semicolons used both correctly and incorrectly: Incorrect: Because Dave wanted an adrenaline rush; he decided to go skydiving. Correct: Dave wanted an adrenaline rush; he decided to go skydiving. The second sentence is correct because the clauses on both sides of the semicolon are independent and could stand alone as sentences. Actual ACT Example Here, the semicolon is just randomly placed after the verb "are"; there is no independent clause on either side of the semicolon. Since no punctuation is necessary after "are," the correct answer is answer choice C. #13: Use the Correct Relative Pronoun The ACT likes to test your knowledge of relative pronouns. There are two specific relative pronoun rules that are important to know for ACT English. Relative Pronouns Must Agree With Their Antecedents Here are what different relative pronouns can be used to refer to: who and whom - people only when - specific times or time periods only where - places only which- any noun other than a person that- any noun whose- possessive that can be used for people or things In many situations, more than one relative pronoun can work. However, in other situations, only one will be acceptable. Here's an example of a relative pronoun error: Incorrect: I love going to restaurants in whichI can get unlimited breadsticks. Correct: I love going to restaurants where I can get unlimited breadsticks. The relative pronoun here is referring to "restaurants"- a location- so "where" is more concise and appropriate. Breadsticks! (apasciuto/Flickr) Here is another example: Incorrect: Johnny enjoys books where he gets to choose his own adventure. Correct: Johnny enjoys books in which he gets to choose his own adventure. A book isn’t a location; therefore, "where" is the incorrect relative pronoun. Media, including books, movies, and articles, should be modified with "in which." Who vs Whom You might have no idea when to use "who" or "whom," but the rule isn’t actually that complicated. Basically, "who" is used as a subject and "whom" is used as an object.A subject does an action or is being described, whereas an object has something done to it. An object can be an object of a verb or preposition. Take a look at our article on pronoun case for more information about subject case vs object case. Now, let's take a look at a couple of examples. First, here is an example sentence using the relative pronoun "who": James, who is my friend, lives in Oklahoma City. In this sentence, "who" is being used correctly. The word "who" is modifying James, and he is my friend. Next, here's an example sentence that uses the relative pronoun "whom": My aunt, from whom I got this jacket, is a very interesting woman. In this sentence, "whom" is also being used correctly. The word "whom" modifies my aunt; I got the jacket from her. You should be able to substitute he/she/they for "who" and him/her/them for "whom." Also, always use "who" before a verb and "whom" after a preposition. Actual ACT Example Remember that "where" can only be used to modify a location. Because storytellers are people, "where" is incorrect.Now, let’s find the right answer. Answer choice D is wrong because the "they" after "that" is unnecessary. Additionally, since the relative pronoun comes before a verb, you can’t use "whom." This means thatthe correct answer is B.The word "who" modifies the storytellers who are doing the action. #14: Subjects and Verbs Must Agree Subjects and verbs must agree, meaning that you must use the singular form of a verb with a singular subject and the plural form of a verb with a plural subject.Take a look at these example sentences: Incorrect: Rock stars likes to entertain adoring fans. Correct: Rock stars like to entertain adoring fans. The King! If the verb is in the present tense and the subject is in the third person (he/she/it/they), the verb usually ends in "s" in the singular form and does not in the plural form.In the example above, the subject is "rock stars," which is plural; therefore, the verb "like" should also be in the plural form ("like" instead of "likes"). On the ACT, subject-verb agreement questions can be even more difficult if there is a phrase that separates the subject from the verb. Here's an example of this: Incorrect: The clothes in my bedroom is in my closet. Correct: The clothes in my bedroom are in my closet. The subject of the sentence is "clothes," which is plural, so the verb should be in the plural form. However, the prepositional phrase "in my bedroom" separates the subject from the verb. If a verb is underlined, make sure you identify the subject that corresponds with the verb to ensure that the subject and verb agree with each other. Also, keep in mind that a subject can never be contained in a prepositional phrase. Actual ACT Example This is a relatively basic subject-verb agreement question. Looking atthe previous sentence, we know that the verb should be in the present tense, so G and H are wrong. The subject of this sentence is "molecules," which is plural. Therefore, we should use the plural form of the verb "bump." The correct answer is J. Other Grammar Rules on ACT English While the rules I explained above are the most often tested on ACT English, there are some other grammar rules that will be tested as well. Here are the links to our other articles that explain the remaining grammatical rules you'll need to know for the ACT: Parallelism Run-on Sentences and Fragments Adjectives vs Adverbs Punctuation Commas The Complete Guide to ACT Grammar Rules What's Next? Now that you're comfortable with the grammar rules on ACT English, make sure you know about style and organization questions. These include questions dealing withadd and delete options, author's main goals, transitions, and macro logic. In addition, we recommend masteringthe five critical concepts you must understand to be able to ace ACT English. Finally, to excel on the ACT English section, you'll need to determine the best approach for reading passages. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by ACT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today:

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Deprecate vs. Depreciate

Deprecate vs. Depreciate Deprecate vs. Depreciate Deprecate vs. Depreciate By Sharon Only one letter separates these two words, but theres considerable difference in meaning. The word deprecate means to express disapproval of something. A synonym for deprecate in this context is to deplore. Example: He deprecated his sisters actions. This means that he did not approve of his sisters actions. The word depreciate means to belittle or play down. Example: He depreciated his sisters achievements. This means that he behaved as if his sisters achievements were insignificant. Depreciate also means to decrease in value. If youve ever owned a car, then youll know that every year it is worth less than the previous year. In other words, it has depreciated. The noun is depreciation, which is very common business and financial term. Quotations from the press: For most used-car buyers it would be a dream come true: Your car actually gains in value, instead of depreciating. When Kelley Blue Book looked at depreciation of used cars from May 24 to the same day last year, it found 23 examples of used cars that had gained in value during that time. (USA Today) It is easy enough to deprecate Mahlers Third. It is inordinately longclose to two hours. It repeats ideas endlessly; much of the music could easily be exchanged with that of other Mahler symphonies; the idiom is pure Mahler with little variation from previous compositions; long stretches are unrelievedly banal. LA Times Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:20 Great Similes from Literature to Inspire You7 Tips for Writing a Film Review50 Synonyms for â€Å"Villain†

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Early college high school for African American males Dissertation

Early college high school for African American males - Dissertation Example In 1954 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that public schools that segregated Whites from Blacks were unconstitutional, and that schools that included different races helped to promote educational equality. Kozol (1991), however, found that even forty years later, racial segregation continued largely unchanged in various urban schools acrosst the country. The nation’s largest school districts remained 95-99% non-White, and Black students in poor families still recorded significantly lower scores on tests of academic performance than Whites in middle and high-income families (Knaus, 2007). Thus, despite the Supreme Court’s ruling and the federal government’s assistance of hundreds of millions of dollars to improve academic performance among Black students in public schools, school achievement remained unchanged (Noguera, 2008). Thus, achievement was unaffected by programs funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), Title 1 programs of the United States Department of Education, Head Start, Success for All, and Accelerated Schools. African Americans’s schools were often inadequate as compared to schools for exclusively White students (Knaus, 2007). Researchers (Bell, 2009; Ladson-Billings, 2004) who have studied and made recommendations about education among African Americans and school segregation have also described how segregated schools continue to lack academically rigorous curricula to promote cognitive growth and development that Black students require to succeed in school. Other researchers have presented the difficulties Black students have faced when transitioning from segregated public schools into an integrated environment and the subsequent performance gap that has existed since the mid-1900s (Valien, Taeuber, Glick et al., 1970). There is an increasing gender difference in graduation rates across the United States. â€Å"The difference exists across racial subgroups and is widest between African American girls and boys† (Chadwell, 2009, p.9). In the entire United States, as compared to any other group in American society, Black males are the most likely to be punished, most frequently through some form of exclusion, are labeled, categorized for special education even when there is absence of disability, and are the most liable to experience academic failure. Gender Differences in the Ways Males and Females Learn According to physician and psychologist, Leonard Sax (2007), the gender issue is relevant to classroom learning in several ways. In the United States there is increasing prevalence of boys expressing their disdain for school â€Å"saying that school is stupid and they do not like to read† (Sax, 2007, p.40). This approach is found to cut across all demographic groups, affecting both affluent white boys in the suburbs and black boys in low-income neighborhoods. Sax